Carbon Adsorption – How Does It Work?

The use of carbon media for reduction and removal of odors and gases has been around since the turn of the century. For the most part carbon and charcoal are the same thing. Carbon used for adsorption of gases is normally expanded by using a combination of pressure and heat. This expanded carbon provides for a large surface area on each carbon granule allowing each granule to adsorb up to 100 times its weight in gases.

Carbon has a natural affinity to attract and retain a wide range ( hundreds of types) of organic and inorganic fumes and odors. As the gaseous molecule passes by the carbon it is adsorbed into the carbon media and retained until that carbon granule is saturated at which time the carbon will no longer adsorb any more ( like a sponge).

The life of the carbon (ability to adsorb) is based on a number of factors. The type of gas or odor, the molecular weight of the gas, volume of air and the concentration of the gas, usually measured in parts per million (ppm).  While all of these variables are important in designing a carbon system the most important is the concentration in and the required reduction or concentration out.

If you want to reduce a continuous air flow containing 30 ppm of styrene monomer to 4 ppm at a volume of 500 cfm and you only want to change out the carbon once every month, you may require as much as 60 to 80 lbs of carbon. Remember, once the carbon is saturated it will release any additional gases back into the air stream.

Pure Air Systems offers a wide range of carbon adsorption systems and specially treated media for unique adsorption applications. We offer a line of combination prefilter/carbon media filters that can be used in-lieu of furnace filters for residential and commercial applications.  In addition, all of our fan powered units, from our portable HPS series to our 2000 CFM units can be fitted with up to 80 lbs of carbon media and used in a wide variety of gas reduction/removal applications.

For more information on our complete line of carbon adsorption units and technology go to our website at: www.pureairsystems. com.

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H1N1 Capture

Like any airborne pathogen, the H1N1 virus is easily spread by contact from person to person in the air. While  it is always a challenge to keep from getting into contact with a carrier there are options available for reducing or removing the virus in small, enclosed areas.

The ability to remove the virus in say, a classroom or hospital ward is now possible with the use of the new commercial, hospital grade HPS series portable HEPA filtration units by Pure Air Systems.  These new high units (up to 500 cfm) can be placed anywhere in a room and provide from 3 to 10 air changes per hour. The new HPS units use a true, certified, scanned HEPA rated at 99.99% at 0.3 microns and smaller.

With the high incidence of H1N1 flu on college campuses and in the elementary schools, the use of HEPA filtration systems like the HPS series could help reduce the exposure of the flu to a number of students and individuals.

For more information on this HEPA unit and the other commercial HEPA systems offered by Pure Air Systems go to our website at: www.pureairsystems.com.

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PAS Sees 60 % Increase In International Business

Sept 1, 2009

Indianapolis, Indiana

PURE AIR SYSTEMS SEES 60% GROWTH IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

Pure Air Systems Ships HEPA Filtration System To Japan

Since 1985, Pure Air Systems has been designing, manufacturing and marketing its line of high end, commercial grade certified HEPA air filtration systems. Residential, commercial, institutional, military and industrial customers around the world have used the PAS systems for reduction and or removal of airborne contaminants as small as 0.012 microns in diameter. Pure Air Systems was the first air filtration company to incorporate the GE (Genteq) ECM digitally controlled variable speed motors that are rated 120/240 volt, 50/60 Hz. The addition of these global application motors gave Pure Air Systems the ability to market the complete line of HEPA based filtration systems to companies anywhere in the world.

In June of 2009 Pure Air Systems received an order from Yaw Automation in Osaka, Japan for one of its’ 2000HS series HEPA systems that produces up to 2000 CFM of HEPA filtered air. Yaw Automation is using the 2000 HS unit in one of their automated process lines that requires a close to clean room environment. The 2000HS, with its variable speed motor and digital speed controller, allow the Yaw engineers to fine tune the amount of HEPA air required for their specific application.

In addition to the Yaw Automation in Japan Pure Air Systems has recently shipped systems to Cure International for its Hospitals in Niger and Malawi Africa; Natural Products Pharmaceuticals in South Africa and Vemco, Ltd in Trinidad and Nano Diamond Products in Ireland.

For more information on the complete product line from Pure Air Systems and a list of our US and International commercial clients please go to our web site at: www.pureairsystems.com.

IBJ Article On Pure Air Systems and International Markets

http://www.ibj.com/manufacturing/PARAMS/article/6936

Pure Air Systems

6115 Guion Road

Indianapolis, IN 46254

800-869-8025,  317-291-4341

pas@pureairsystems.com

 

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Effectiveness Of HPS 500 For Formaldehyde Removal

FORMALDEHYDE TESTING PROGRAM
PURE AIR SYSTEMS
HPS 500 SERIES CARBON ADSORPTION SYSTEM

FORMALDEHYDE REMEDIATION
SOLICITATION NUMBER: HSFEHQ-09-R-0047
FORMALDEHYDE REMEDIATION FOR MANUFACTURED HOUSING AND TRAVEL TRAILERS

OVERVIEW – REMEDIATION PROCESS – TEST PROTOCOL

OVERVIEW:

The Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency is researching the logistics and costs associated with the remediation of formaldehyde-contaminated manufactured housing and recreational vehicles. The DHS is requesting information from industry to determine its ability to remediate formaldehyde-contaminated manufactured housing and recreational vehicles.

Over the years, FEMA has procured manufactured housing and recreational vehicles which are located throughout the United States. Manufactured housing and recreational vehicles are in the form of park models with average dimensions of 14 ft x 40 ft; travel trailers averaging 8 ft x 32 ft; and mobile homes averaging 14 ft x 65 ft. FEMA has determined the manufactured housing and recreational vehicles are not suitable for residential use/habitation. FEMA is researching the logistics and cost associated with reducing the formaldehyde concentration in the manufactured housing and recreational vehicles to a level of 0.16 ppm or below, and maintaining that level indefinitely.

REMEDIATION PROCESS:

Established in 1985, Pure Air Systems has been manufacturing HEPA and Carbon based air filtration systems for the residential, commercial, institutional and medical markets. We have systems in operation in a number of government associated facilities such as; Lawrence Livermore National Labs, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Labs, BAE Defense Systems, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, Picatinny Arsenal and U.S. Boarder Patrol to name a few.

For applications where the reduction/removal of odors and gases are required, we remove the HEPA filter from our systems and replace it with various carbon and adsorption based compounds specifically suited for removal or reduction of specific gases.

For the purposes of this specific project we used our new portable HPS 500 unit that can move over 500 CFM of air. The HPS unit is 13” square and 21 ½” long and weighs approximately 28 lbs as used in this test phase. We installed three filters in the HPS 500 for this test phase.

The first filter is a combination 12” x 12” x 1” ring panel polyester media on inlet side and carbon media on discharge side. This first filter is designed to remove dust particulate and keep the adsorption media clean. This first filter contains 76 grams of activated carbon.

Page 2: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

The second filter is a 12” x 12” x 2” box style pleated material that contains 294 grams of activated alumina with 5% potassium permanganate.

The third filter is a 12” x 12” x 4” box style pleated filter material that contains 374 grams of activated alumina with 5% potassium permanganate. The three filters combined have a total of 744 grams of adsorptive media.

TEST EQUIPMENT :

The three adsorptive media filters were placed in the HPS 500 series unit. (see photos last page). This system uses an EBM four speed blower/motor assembly that can produce well over 500 CFM with all filters installed. For the purpose of this remediation test we ran the unit at the lowest speed of 200 CFM.

The HPS 500 was placed in an 8x8x8 plastic enclosed room that was almost air tight. (see photos last page). The test room is located in a warehouse space and the space is not cooled or heated. The tests were done from June 10th through June 24th. The average temperature in the room was 84 degrees with an average relative humidity of 50 %. This is fairly close to the conditions you would find in a mobile home or recreational vehicle that is closed up with no ventilation or operational heating/cooling system in the same seasonal time period in most parts of the U.S.

A stand was placed in the middle of the test room and a section of carpet was placed on the stand. We used a 37% solution of HCHO (Formaldehyde) (Formalin) solution reagent for the purpose of replicating as closely as possible the type of Formaldehyde used in certain building materials found in the construction of mobile homes and recreational vehicles. The HCHO was purchased from Spectrum and is listed as: CAS 50-00-0.

To accurately measure the levels of Formaldehyde in ppm, we used a Sensidyne Gastec sampling pump, model 800. (see photo last page). To measure the gas levels we used Sensidyne Precision Gas Detector Tubes, Number 171SC for Formaldehyde. Range 0.05 to 4.0 ppm. Lot No. 252019. Tubes have an expiration date of Jan 2010.

PROCEDURE:

To establish a base level (in ppm) of Formaldehyde that would be representative of HCHO levels that may be present in mobile homes, travel trailers and recreational vehicles as indicated in the overview of this report. Our own experience with testing for Formaldehyde in homes and mobile homes has shown levels that range from 5 ppm. Since the Sensidyne tubes have a maximum range of 4.0 ppm we ran a number of tests to determine the amount of Formaldehyde needed in the test chamber to start with a base level of 4.0 ppm.

Page 3: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

TEST A: Date: June 10, 2009; Time: 10:00 AM

A piece of carpet was placed on a stand in the middle of the test chamber and the appropriate amount of Formaldehyde was placed directly on the carpet piece. The chamber was closed up for four (4) hours prior to taking the first reading. The HPS 500 did not run during the four hour saturation process.

Time: 2:00 PM

The first reading was taken (HPS not running): Base level of 4.0 ppm HCHO achieved.

Time: 2:01 PM

HPS 500 was turned on with fan running at lowest speed setting ( 200 CFM).

Date: June 11, 2009; Time 2:00 PM

Second reading taken after HPS 500 ran for 24 hours in test chamber. HCHO reading 0.3 ppm.

Date: June 12, 2009; Time 2: 00 PM

Third reading taken after HPS 500 ran for 48 hours in test chamber. HCHO reading 0.05 ppm.

TEST B: Date: June 15, 2009; Time 9:00 AM

Dispersion Test. The same protocol was used for this test as used for the HPS 500 carbon reduction/removal test. The purpose of this test is to determine if, over time, the levels of Formaldehyde will decrease or remain the same if no active reduction/removal process is used. The same amount of Formaldehyde was introduced by applying it to a piece carpet located on a stand in the center of the test chamber.

Time: 1:00 PM

The first reading was taken: Base level of 4.0 ppm HCHO achieved.

Date: June 16, 2009; Time 1:00 PM

The second reading was taken after 24 hours: HCHO reading 4.0 ppm.

Date: June 17, 2009; Time 1:00 PM

The third reading was taken after 48 hours: HCHO reading 4.0 ppm.

Page 4: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

CONCLUSIONS AND OBSERVATIONS:

While this test was concluded in a test chamber rather than an actual mobile home, trailer or recreational vehicle, the environmental conditions and levels of Formaldehyde used in the test chamber mimic, in many ways, the actual conditions we have found in homes and mobile homes in actual in-situ testing.

We only ran the tests over a 48 hour time frame since we only used a small amount of Formaldehyde. This represents, more or less, an equivalent amount of Formaldehyde that would be representative of an entire unit where much of the construction materials would contain some Formaldehyde and the overall concentration, dispersion and out-gasing would last for a much longer period of time. The dispersion test verified that there is little or no decrease in the HCHO level without any active reduction/removal process. Based on these tests in can be concluded that the HPS 500 with the adsorptive media as tested would maintain the levels of < 0.05 ppm indefinitely.

NEXT PHASE – TESTING IN DHS MOBILE HOME, TRAVEL TRAILER OR RECREATIONAL VEHICHLE.

The next test for the HPS 500 would be in an actual DHS formaldehyde – contaminated mobile home, travel trailer or recreational vehicle as indicated in the original solicitation. With the positive results of the Formaldehyde reduction/removal testing as shown in our test report Pure Air Systems believes the use of the HPS 500 would be a much better and much less expensive than removing and replacing all the wall and floor construction materials.

Page 5: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems.

HPS 500

Pure Air Systems Test Chamber

Sensidyne Test Tubes

Page 6: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

Carbon Media and Alumina Media With 5% Potassium Permangenate

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ASHRAE Ventilation vs PAS Systems

PURE AIR SYSTEMS

A Discussion on ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007
Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings

OLD STANDARD: The concept of utilizing mechanical ventilation as an effective method for reducing indoor air pollution in homes and small commercial buildings (two – story) has been considered an effective method to ventilate homes and minimize sources of indoor pollution. This concept applies to spaces intended for human occupancy within single-family houses and multifamily structures of three stories or fewer, including manufactured and modular houses.

PREMISE: The use of moderate to high volume self contained air filtration systems to allow for high rates of air filtration to reduce indoor air pollutants in occupied areas while also introducing small amounts outside, filtered fresh air for ventilation in-lieu of large amounts of mechanical ventilation as discussed in the ASHRAE 62.2-2007 standard.

IN THE BEGINNING

The use of natural ventilation in occupied areas has been around since people lived in caves. It is somewhat interesting to note that the method of ventilation for reduction of indoor air pollutants has not changed much since then.

The use of either natural ventilation ( such as opening up windows, doors or use of gravity vents) or mechanical ventilation such as fans, ducted vents with fans and mechanical HVAC equipment with the ability to introduce outside air have been primary methods of ventilation for years. This method was used for natural conditioning of the air temperature, reduction of stale air (removal of CO2) or reduction and/or removal of airborne pollutants.

There are a number of challenges with using outside air for ventilation. First, if you introduce outside air that is significantly above (hot) or below (cold) the inside ambient temperature you will increase or reduce the temperature and humidity levels in the occupied area and the energy requirements (and equipment costs) to maintain a comfortable temperature and humidity range become excessive. Second, outside air is not really fresh air. In today’s world no matter where you live the amount of contaminants and pollutants in the outside air preclude you from introducing any air from the outside unless it is properly filtered.

A MORE EFFECTIVE ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD

Since its inception in 1985, Pure Air Systems HEPA based air filtration units were designed to be used to both filter the air and offer the option of introducing small amounts of outside, filtered fresh air for ventilation and reduction of CO2 and other airborne pollutants. The PAS systems can be used in conjunction with any type of forced air ducted heating/cooling system in the partial by-pass configuration or as stand alone units.

Page 2. Ventilation In Low-Rise Buildings:

The Pure Air Systems filtration units are all fan powered and range in air filtration volume from 350 CFM to 2000 CFM. These units incorporate an ECM energy efficient motor, forward curved blower, prefilter, carbon and certified 99.99% at 0.3 micron HEPA filter. The system is attached to the return air side of the HVAC system and a portion of the return air is brought in through the HEPA system (see image below) and continuously filtered.

A small amount of outside air (usually 50 to 100 CFM) is introduced directly ahead of the PAS unit. This small amount of air is naturally mixed with the ambient air from the return. Since the amount of outside air is much smaller (by percentage) than the amount of ambient air, even with extremely hot or cold outside air, the resultant mixed air temperature that is achieved through the natural mixing process delivered back to the HVAC system has a temperature differential of no more than 5 to 8 degrees F. from ambient. This means the amount of energy required to heat or cool this air back to the required temperature is minimal.

CONCLUSION

With the new tighter, energy efficient building techniques used today the need for some type of ventilation in occupied areas is necessary. However, with the need to reduce energy costs and meet some of the new LEED building certifications it is more important then ever that alternate methods of introducing outside air for ventilation be considered. The ventilation method utilized by Pure Air Systems is not only more energy efficient but provides a much greater reduction of airborne pollutants and better indoor air quality.

Pure Air Systems
6115 Guion Road
Indianapolis, IN 46254
800-869-8025
www.pureairsystems.com

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