Adding Filtered Fresh Air To Your Home

In a few areas of the US the weather is mild enough that one can open the windows and allow some air to enter the house from the outside most of the year. For the rest of us opening the windows is only an option for a few weeks out of the year as the heat, humidity and cold temperatures limit our ability to add any outside air to the home.

You’ll notice that we use the term “outside” air rather than “fresh” air as most often the outside air entering the home or occupied facility is anything but fresh.

Because of industrial pollution, cars, trucks, farming, construction, grasses, weeds, pollen, decaying matter and a host of other sources, the air outside has a high concentration of small, less than 10 micron, particulate matter and a wide variety of gases and odors generated by auto emissions, pesticides, chemicals, etc.

So, when you open up your windows to let in some “fresh” air to eliminate the “stale” air, you are actually doing a good job of exchanging one problem for another. So, in order to actually introduce fresh air you need to filter the air as it enters the house. Okay, so how do I accomplish this?

Actually this is not difficult to do. Most homes have a ducted, forced air heating/cooling system which moves air throughout the house and normally has a furnace filter or filtering device located on the return air side of the fan section of the unit. This filter keeps the air handler clean by removing dust and dirt from inside the home.

Simply by adding a 6″ or 8″ diameter duct from outside the house and attach it directly into the main return air duct at the air handler section you can introduce as much as 100 to 150 CFM (cubic feet per minute) of outside air and have it all filtered prior to entering the house.

Using this approach allows you to add a much smaller amount of outside air and is more effective than opening up windows. The HVAC  fan will move the air throughout the house in a very short period of time and mix it with the existing air. By using  just 100 CFM you will add up to 144,000 cubic feet of air in a 24 hour period or enough to change all the air in a medium sized home 1.2 times per day. The more air you add the higher the exchange rate.

Also, adding a small amount of outside air ( 100 CFM) to the return air duct will not affect the conditioned environment of the house. Since most air handlers move 1200 CFM to 2000 CFM, adding 100 CFM of hot, cold or humid outside air is less than 10% of the total volume of air being conditioned.

Pure Air Systems has been using  the concept of adding outside filtered fresh air to homes, offices and other occupied areas since it’s beginning in 1985. This concept, used in concert with the HEPA air filtration systems and air filters manufactured by PAS, has been proven to be extremely effective in thousands of applications across the US and Canada.

In fact, Pure Air Systems pioneered the use of adding outside air with the introduction of its 600HS unit in 1985. Since then the concept of adding outside air has been used with all the HS series units. In addition to filtering out the contaminants this concept will, in many cases, actually slightly pressurize the air in the house, office or occupied environment minimizing the entry of outside contaminants as well.

For more information on using outside filtered fresh air go to our website at: www.pureairsystems.com.

 

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Remove Dust Mites, Dust & Allergens

The problem of removing or capturing airborne allergens, dust, dust mite feces and other allergy producing particles has been an on-going challenge for homeowners and with good reason. The new housing construction designs are geared more and more toward the “green” building techniques which mean they are much tighter and more energy efficient. These new, tighter homes have little or no fresh air ventilation and, in essence, the home has become a terrarium.

The ability to capture general dust particles, or dust mite feces and other airborne allergens is normally accomplished by the air filter or furnace filter that is located in the HVAC system. Also, the use of portable, fan powered air filter or air purifying devices are often used and can also be helpful.

However, the use of these filtering devices is effective in removing dust and other particles only if they are airborne. Yes! The particles are not pulled off the floor or other surfaces to the filtering devices. They must be airborne.

The best way to ensure that you are removing these particles is to  always have your HVAC fan setting on your thermostat to the Fan On mode. This means the fan is running all the time even if the heating or cooling modes are not operating. Then, whenever you walk through the house or on the carpeting, or dust or vacuum the carpet, the small, sub-micron particles will become airborne and get picked up through the return air vents or drawn into the portable air filtration device.

The dust particles only become airborne for a short period of time; anywhere from 1 minute to 30 minutes depending upon the size of the particle. This is why constant air movement in the home is necessary to keep the environment as dust free as possible. Again, remember that even thought the dust particles are light and tiny, they will remain on any surface until moved or disturbed.

Once these tiny particles are airborne it is important to ensure that they are properly captured or removed. It is important that the furnace filters and portable filtering devices use a commercial grade filtering media or even HEPA filters for absolute capture.

Pure Air Systems offers a line of dual-layer, polyester ring panel filters that are a MERV 8 rated media. These commercial grade furnace filters fit very tightly into the filter frame and eliminate any bypass around the filter, unlike cardboard frame filters with little or no sealing capabilities.

The ability to seal tightly is important since the majority of the particles captured by the filter are less than 5 microns in size. In addition, the dual-layer media has the ability to hold a lot of dust without any appreciable increase in resistance or pressure drop. This means long life with fewer filter changes.

Pure Air Systems also offers a new, high capacity portable HEPA system that is small ( 13″ square by 21″ long) and powerful. This small HEPA unit can produce up to 500 CFM and offers four speeds, one to suit any room or application. This unit comes complete with a prefilter/carbon media filter and a true, certified 99.99% at 0.3 micron HEPA filter.

For more information on these and other air filtration products go to: www.pureairsystems.com.

 

 

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Carbon VS Ozone

The ability to reduce or eliminate odors and gases in an occupied area has been a challenge for contractors, architects, environmental engineers and HVACR professionals for years. This problem persists in many forms and in many areas in the residential, commercial, institutional, industrial and medical arenas.

In the past thirty years a number of odor and gas reduction/removal processes have been employed to resolve these problems. Of  all the products and techniques that have been tried two methods are the most often considered and only one of these two methods provides any real reduction or removal.

Ozone is easily produced. Simply by applying a small amount of electricity in a spark form you can transform Oxyen (O2) into Ozone (O3). Ozone is produced naturally when there is lightning. If you are outside close to a lightning strike you can often smell the ozone produced by the lightning. It almost has a sweet, fresh air smell.

Activated Carbon or Charcoal has a natural affinity to adsorb (not absorb) gases and odors that are both organic and inorganic. Activated carbon has a very large surface area that captures and holds most gaseous molecules until the carbon is saturated then it will release the excess gaseous molecules.

Ozone is a strong oxidizer. Ozone easily gives up one of Oxygen elements which can alter the chemical composition of gases. Ozone is often referred to as “energized oxygen” or “pure air” suggesting that ozone is a healthy kind of oxygen. That is far from true. Ozone is a toxic gas with vastly different chemical and toxicological properties from oxygen. Ozone can be harmful to the respiratory system and is the primary component of smog.

While carbon does have a finite life and adsorption capacity, it actually removes or significantly reduces the gas or odor completely. Unlike Ozone which may only change the gaseous molecule to another form that may actually be more harmful than the original odor problem, Carbon is benign and removes the harmful odors and gases without producing any health problems for individuals.

Pure Air Systems manufactures a complete line of carbon based systems that can hold from 10 lbs of carbon up to 60 lbs of carbon. These units are designed to work in all types of applications whether it is residential or commercial.  These units are fan powered and can handle up to 2000 CFM of contaminated air with excellent first pass reduction of odors and gases.

For more information on the Pure Air Systems Carbon adsorption systems go to: www.pureairsystems.com

 

 

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The Truth About HEPA Filters

Hepa filters have been around since the development of the atomic bomb. In fact, HEPA paper or HEPA media was created in 1941 specifically to remove the Alpha particles in the air to protect the scientists during the actual creation of the first atomic bomb in Los Alamos, New Mexico.

The development of the HEPA filter allowed for the complete capture of sub-micron particles. HEPA actually stands for High Efficiency Particulate Air or Absolute. Meaning it will absolutely remove particles of a certain size.

To be called a true HEPA filter, it has to meet a minimum capture filtration efficiency of 99.97% at 0.3 microns. To give you an idea of how small this is, a strand of your hair is approximately 100 microns in diameter. You can see particles only down to about 20 microns in diameter with the naked eye. The capture efficiency means that for every 10,000 particles in the air at 0.3 microns or larger that pass through the HEPA filter, only 3 particles may get through.

Of all the air filters available on the market today, including all the furnace and commercial HVAC filters, only HEPA filters are actually rated on their particulate removal performance. All other filters are now based on a MERV rating scale which gives a general capability based on a particle size range.

HEPA filters are the ONLY type of filter used in the following applications; hospital surgery  rooms, micro-chip manufacturing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, food processing, optics manufacturing, isolation rooms for pathogen contamination control, the CDC, Clean Rooms and Biological Laboratories to mention a few.

Over the years a large number of medical product manufacturing companies have latched on to the acceptance of HEPA as the best method for removal of bacteria and viruses and incorporated these filters into their systems. Today, HEPA filters are used in hundreds of commercial applications where the removal of small, sub-micron particles are required.

Unfortunately because of the acceptance of HEPA as THE filter media to use, many air filter companies and vacuum cleaner companies have incorporated the HEPA name into their filtering devices. In most cases these are HEPA type or HEPA like filters and not true, certified HEPA filters.

HEPA filters are extremely expensive when compared to a standard duty media filter; in many cases 15 to 20 times more expensive. In addition, in order for a true HEPA filter to be effective, it must be sealed tightly in the filter frame or holding frame.  To ensure this complete seal, HEPA filters use neoprene gaskets on the downstream side and are compressed into the frame to ensure a tight seal. In some cases a gel seal material is used to ensure no leakage around the filter itself.

Compared to general duty media filters and furnace filters, HEPA filters have an extremely high resistance or pressure drop. This means the HEPA filter has to be mated with a more powerful motor/blower system to overcome the additional static load.

Pure Air Systems has been using true, commercial grade, certified HEPA filters since 1985. It has more HEPA systems in the residential and commercial markets as packaged HEPA systems than any other filter company in the US. Today, Pure Air Systems uses a metal framed, high capacity, certified 99.99% at 0.3 micron filter in all of its units.

For more information on Pure Air Systems, HEPA filters and the applications that use HEPA go to our website at: www.pureairsystems. com

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Negative or Positive – Choose The Pressure That Works For Your Filter Application

In the health care, micro-electronics, micro-chip manufacturing, optics, food processing and other environmentally sensitive applications, the need for high end air filtration or HEPA filtration is high.For example, all hospital and out-patient surgery suites require 100% HEPA filtered air all the time whenever a patient is in surgery.

However, did you know that not only does the surgery room require HEPA filtration but it must operated under a negative pressure system?

The concept of negative and positive air pressure as a means to control an enclosed environment has been around for a long time. While we don’t always notice it, we all see this working on a day-to-day basis in the everyday world.

Remember the last time you opened the door to an office building and you had to pull real hard to get the door to open. Or, just the opposite. You opened the door to a building and when it opened up it blew your hair back. The first example is negative pressure, the second positive pressure.

A building or any enclosed room or structure can become negative when the air handling (heating/cooling) system has a design flaw where more return air is being pulled to the air handler than supply air.

This can happen mechanically for a number of reasons but suffice it to say that when this in-balance of air occurs any opening, crack, or communication point in the structure will draw in air, dust, dirt and any small airborne particulate from the outside or an adjoining space.

The opposite in-balance can also occur where there is more supply air than return air creating a positive pressure environment. In this case the room or enclosure maintains a much cleaner environment since the positive pressure prevents any outside contaminants from entering the room.

For applications such as surgery rooms and micro-chip manufacturing, the rooms must not only be HEPA filtered but be under constant positive pressure.

When a patient is in surgery and the body cavity is open the possibility for infection from any airborne pathogen is extreme. Even with all the air being HEPA filtered, if the room itself was not under positive pressure the ability for small, sub-micron contaminants to enter the room is great.

Micro-chip manufacturing has a similar problem. The micro-chips are actually layers upon layers of silica and if even a tiny, sub-micron particle falls in between the layers, the chip is ruined. Again, positive pressure is required in this application.

In applications where a harmful contaminants, highly infectious bacteria and viruses or harmful gases are present, negative pressure systems are applied to keep the contaminants from leaving the room or enclosed area.

Pure Air Systems HEPA filtration units are powerful and can be used to make a room negative or positive by themselves. They can also be used in conjunction with any HVAC system to accomplish this goal. The ability to both provide HEPA filtered air and produce the desired pressure in the room for the specific application make these systems unique in the market place today.

For more information on positive and negative pressure and the overall capabilities of the HEPA systems go to: www.pureairsystems.com

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Time To RE-Think Your Furnace Filter System

No matter what type of forced air heating/cooling system you use, all of them require an  air filter of some kind.  While many people believe the primary purpose of the filter is to remove airborne dirt and dust particles to keep the home or office environment cleaner, the fact is the filters  are used primarily to keep the heating/cooling system clean.

All split system HVAC units have a cooling coil for AC and sets of burners for heating located in the main air handler. It is necessary to keep the cooling coils and burners clean and free of dust and dirt or they will not operate properly and become very inefficient. In addition, the air filter is needed to keep the blower wheel ( the device that moves the air) from getting dirty and out of balance. Also the furnace fan and motor are designed to move the air through the system and compensate only for the static pressure or resistance for only these components. The filter can not add much static load to the fan.

It is for these parameters that most furnace air filters are designed and that is why the majority fall under one of two categories; “crappy” and “almost useless”. Yes, they can remove enough of the larger dust and dirt particles to keep the coil and burners clean but No, they are not dense enough to remove the smaller more harmful airborne particles. Making the filters too dense adds too much static load to the HVAC motor and significantly reduces the air flow and this means you heat or cool longer to obtain the desired room air temperature.

While there are a large number of expensive electronic, hybrid electronic or other media type filters available for use with you HVAC unit, for those of you who want to continue to use a simple, inexpensive, throw-away media filter for your furnace there is a better choice.

Pure Air Systems offers a dual-layer, polyester, ring panel filter that is commercial grade and fits tightly in the filter frame, holds a large amount of dust and dirt, collects particles as small as 3 microns and adds very little resistance or static pressure to the HVAC  blower/motor assembly.  These filters are easy to change and have an unlimited shelf life.

In addition, Pure Air Systems offers a line of filters using the same ring panel design with polyester media on one side and carbon media on the other side. These filters are great for both removing airborne particulate as well as odors and gases.

For more information on these filters and the other filter systems offered by Pure Air Systems go to our website at: www.pureairsystems.com

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Home Health Care

You can’t pick up a newspaper or magazine or go on-line today without reading about health care. While much of the commentary is on changes to the health care system, a lot is also pointed toward the ways we can reduce health care costs by taking better care of our bodies.

While knowing more about how to maintain a healthy lifestyle is important, it is just as critical to become better educated on how to maintain a healthy home.

Since we spend the majority of our lives inside our homes breathing the air in this enclosed, controlled environment, shouldn’t we know more about how this environment can affect us? I think we should. After all, breathing in even small quantities of airborne allergens, pathogens and gases over time can significantly affect you health.

New home construction techniques have made homes tighter and more energy efficient, they have also significantly reduced the amount of fresh air exchange while significantly increasing the concentration levels of all types of airborne contaminants. Yes, your furnace filter does remove some of the larger dust particles and yes some of the more sophisticated hybrid type electronic cleaners are more effective on smaller particles. However, both of these systems require you to run your furnace fan constantly to keep the airborne contaminants coming to the filters, and, neither of these filter systems allows for any fresh, filtered outside air.

Airborne contaminants, allergens, pathogens and gases are generated on a daily basis in all homes. Carpeting, cleaning chemicals, pets, hair spray, dust from clothing, books and outside the house and our own bodies, all contribute to this indoor air pollution.

Because the majority of these harmful particles are tiny, less than 20 microns in size ( the human eye can only detect particles about 100 microns in size) they are not visible therefore not noticed. Yet a large majority of these small particles are inhaled into our lungs and stay there. Our bodies naturally remove most of these but some can be harmful and some of the airborne allergens and pathogens can cause significant respiratory problems or severe allergic reactions that can become chronic.

Pure Air Systems has been manufacturing true, commercial and hospital grade HEPA based air filtration systems since 1985. These systems are designed to be installed as part of the HVAC system (heating/cooling unit) and filter all the air in the house up to 48  to 60 times per day. In addition, these units have the ability to introduce fresh, filtered outside air into to house.  The HEPA filter is designed to remove 99.99% of all particles 0.3 microns and larger and approaches this same level of efficiency on particles as small as .012 microns.

This unit can be used in conjunction with any type of forced air heating/cooling unit and the PAS units use the energy efficient ECM motor that can run continuously removing airborne contaminants 24/7  and operating for only pennies a day.

The cost of health care is one of the most critical issues we face today. Pure Air Systems has one solution to help you keep you home healthy and you healthy at the same time.

For  more information on the PAS HEPA systems go to. www.pureairsystems.com.

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Carbon Adsorption – How Does It Work?

The use of carbon media for reduction and removal of odors and gases has been around since the turn of the century. For the most part carbon and charcoal are the same thing. Carbon used for adsorption of gases is normally expanded by using a combination of pressure and heat. This expanded carbon provides for a large surface area on each carbon granule allowing each granule to adsorb up to 100 times its weight in gases.

Carbon has a natural affinity to attract and retain a wide range ( hundreds of types) of organic and inorganic fumes and odors. As the gaseous molecule passes by the carbon it is adsorbed into the carbon media and retained until that carbon granule is saturated at which time the carbon will no longer adsorb any more ( like a sponge).

The life of the carbon (ability to adsorb) is based on a number of factors. The type of gas or odor, the molecular weight of the gas, volume of air and the concentration of the gas, usually measured in parts per million (ppm).  While all of these variables are important in designing a carbon system the most important is the concentration in and the required reduction or concentration out.

If you want to reduce a continuous air flow containing 30 ppm of styrene monomer to 4 ppm at a volume of 500 cfm and you only want to change out the carbon once every month, you may require as much as 60 to 80 lbs of carbon. Remember, once the carbon is saturated it will release any additional gases back into the air stream.

Pure Air Systems offers a wide range of carbon adsorption systems and specially treated media for unique adsorption applications. We offer a line of combination prefilter/carbon media filters that can be used in-lieu of furnace filters for residential and commercial applications.  In addition, all of our fan powered units, from our portable HPS series to our 2000 CFM units can be fitted with up to 80 lbs of carbon media and used in a wide variety of gas reduction/removal applications.

For more information on our complete line of carbon adsorption units and technology go to our website at: www.pureairsystems. com.

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Effectiveness Of HPS 500 For Formaldehyde Removal

FORMALDEHYDE TESTING PROGRAM
PURE AIR SYSTEMS
HPS 500 SERIES CARBON ADSORPTION SYSTEM

FORMALDEHYDE REMEDIATION
SOLICITATION NUMBER: HSFEHQ-09-R-0047
FORMALDEHYDE REMEDIATION FOR MANUFACTURED HOUSING AND TRAVEL TRAILERS

OVERVIEW – REMEDIATION PROCESS – TEST PROTOCOL

OVERVIEW:

The Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency is researching the logistics and costs associated with the remediation of formaldehyde-contaminated manufactured housing and recreational vehicles. The DHS is requesting information from industry to determine its ability to remediate formaldehyde-contaminated manufactured housing and recreational vehicles.

Over the years, FEMA has procured manufactured housing and recreational vehicles which are located throughout the United States. Manufactured housing and recreational vehicles are in the form of park models with average dimensions of 14 ft x 40 ft; travel trailers averaging 8 ft x 32 ft; and mobile homes averaging 14 ft x 65 ft. FEMA has determined the manufactured housing and recreational vehicles are not suitable for residential use/habitation. FEMA is researching the logistics and cost associated with reducing the formaldehyde concentration in the manufactured housing and recreational vehicles to a level of 0.16 ppm or below, and maintaining that level indefinitely.

REMEDIATION PROCESS:

Established in 1985, Pure Air Systems has been manufacturing HEPA and Carbon based air filtration systems for the residential, commercial, institutional and medical markets. We have systems in operation in a number of government associated facilities such as; Lawrence Livermore National Labs, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Labs, BAE Defense Systems, U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, Picatinny Arsenal and U.S. Boarder Patrol to name a few.

For applications where the reduction/removal of odors and gases are required, we remove the HEPA filter from our systems and replace it with various carbon and adsorption based compounds specifically suited for removal or reduction of specific gases.

For the purposes of this specific project we used our new portable HPS 500 unit that can move over 500 CFM of air. The HPS unit is 13” square and 21 ½” long and weighs approximately 28 lbs as used in this test phase. We installed three filters in the HPS 500 for this test phase.

The first filter is a combination 12” x 12” x 1” ring panel polyester media on inlet side and carbon media on discharge side. This first filter is designed to remove dust particulate and keep the adsorption media clean. This first filter contains 76 grams of activated carbon.

Page 2: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

The second filter is a 12” x 12” x 2” box style pleated material that contains 294 grams of activated alumina with 5% potassium permanganate.

The third filter is a 12” x 12” x 4” box style pleated filter material that contains 374 grams of activated alumina with 5% potassium permanganate. The three filters combined have a total of 744 grams of adsorptive media.

TEST EQUIPMENT :

The three adsorptive media filters were placed in the HPS 500 series unit. (see photos last page). This system uses an EBM four speed blower/motor assembly that can produce well over 500 CFM with all filters installed. For the purpose of this remediation test we ran the unit at the lowest speed of 200 CFM.

The HPS 500 was placed in an 8x8x8 plastic enclosed room that was almost air tight. (see photos last page). The test room is located in a warehouse space and the space is not cooled or heated. The tests were done from June 10th through June 24th. The average temperature in the room was 84 degrees with an average relative humidity of 50 %. This is fairly close to the conditions you would find in a mobile home or recreational vehicle that is closed up with no ventilation or operational heating/cooling system in the same seasonal time period in most parts of the U.S.

A stand was placed in the middle of the test room and a section of carpet was placed on the stand. We used a 37% solution of HCHO (Formaldehyde) (Formalin) solution reagent for the purpose of replicating as closely as possible the type of Formaldehyde used in certain building materials found in the construction of mobile homes and recreational vehicles. The HCHO was purchased from Spectrum and is listed as: CAS 50-00-0.

To accurately measure the levels of Formaldehyde in ppm, we used a Sensidyne Gastec sampling pump, model 800. (see photo last page). To measure the gas levels we used Sensidyne Precision Gas Detector Tubes, Number 171SC for Formaldehyde. Range 0.05 to 4.0 ppm. Lot No. 252019. Tubes have an expiration date of Jan 2010.

PROCEDURE:

To establish a base level (in ppm) of Formaldehyde that would be representative of HCHO levels that may be present in mobile homes, travel trailers and recreational vehicles as indicated in the overview of this report. Our own experience with testing for Formaldehyde in homes and mobile homes has shown levels that range from 5 ppm. Since the Sensidyne tubes have a maximum range of 4.0 ppm we ran a number of tests to determine the amount of Formaldehyde needed in the test chamber to start with a base level of 4.0 ppm.

Page 3: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

TEST A: Date: June 10, 2009; Time: 10:00 AM

A piece of carpet was placed on a stand in the middle of the test chamber and the appropriate amount of Formaldehyde was placed directly on the carpet piece. The chamber was closed up for four (4) hours prior to taking the first reading. The HPS 500 did not run during the four hour saturation process.

Time: 2:00 PM

The first reading was taken (HPS not running): Base level of 4.0 ppm HCHO achieved.

Time: 2:01 PM

HPS 500 was turned on with fan running at lowest speed setting ( 200 CFM).

Date: June 11, 2009; Time 2:00 PM

Second reading taken after HPS 500 ran for 24 hours in test chamber. HCHO reading 0.3 ppm.

Date: June 12, 2009; Time 2: 00 PM

Third reading taken after HPS 500 ran for 48 hours in test chamber. HCHO reading 0.05 ppm.

TEST B: Date: June 15, 2009; Time 9:00 AM

Dispersion Test. The same protocol was used for this test as used for the HPS 500 carbon reduction/removal test. The purpose of this test is to determine if, over time, the levels of Formaldehyde will decrease or remain the same if no active reduction/removal process is used. The same amount of Formaldehyde was introduced by applying it to a piece carpet located on a stand in the center of the test chamber.

Time: 1:00 PM

The first reading was taken: Base level of 4.0 ppm HCHO achieved.

Date: June 16, 2009; Time 1:00 PM

The second reading was taken after 24 hours: HCHO reading 4.0 ppm.

Date: June 17, 2009; Time 1:00 PM

The third reading was taken after 48 hours: HCHO reading 4.0 ppm.

Page 4: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

CONCLUSIONS AND OBSERVATIONS:

While this test was concluded in a test chamber rather than an actual mobile home, trailer or recreational vehicle, the environmental conditions and levels of Formaldehyde used in the test chamber mimic, in many ways, the actual conditions we have found in homes and mobile homes in actual in-situ testing.

We only ran the tests over a 48 hour time frame since we only used a small amount of Formaldehyde. This represents, more or less, an equivalent amount of Formaldehyde that would be representative of an entire unit where much of the construction materials would contain some Formaldehyde and the overall concentration, dispersion and out-gasing would last for a much longer period of time. The dispersion test verified that there is little or no decrease in the HCHO level without any active reduction/removal process. Based on these tests in can be concluded that the HPS 500 with the adsorptive media as tested would maintain the levels of < 0.05 ppm indefinitely.

NEXT PHASE – TESTING IN DHS MOBILE HOME, TRAVEL TRAILER OR RECREATIONAL VEHICHLE.

The next test for the HPS 500 would be in an actual DHS formaldehyde – contaminated mobile home, travel trailer or recreational vehicle as indicated in the original solicitation. With the positive results of the Formaldehyde reduction/removal testing as shown in our test report Pure Air Systems believes the use of the HPS 500 would be a much better and much less expensive than removing and replacing all the wall and floor construction materials.

Page 5: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems.

HPS 500

Pure Air Systems Test Chamber

Sensidyne Test Tubes

Page 6: Formaldehyde Test – Pure Air Systems

Carbon Media and Alumina Media With 5% Potassium Permangenate

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ASHRAE Ventilation vs PAS Systems

PURE AIR SYSTEMS

A Discussion on ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007
Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings

OLD STANDARD: The concept of utilizing mechanical ventilation as an effective method for reducing indoor air pollution in homes and small commercial buildings (two – story) has been considered an effective method to ventilate homes and minimize sources of indoor pollution. This concept applies to spaces intended for human occupancy within single-family houses and multifamily structures of three stories or fewer, including manufactured and modular houses.

PREMISE: The use of moderate to high volume self contained air filtration systems to allow for high rates of air filtration to reduce indoor air pollutants in occupied areas while also introducing small amounts outside, filtered fresh air for ventilation in-lieu of large amounts of mechanical ventilation as discussed in the ASHRAE 62.2-2007 standard.

IN THE BEGINNING

The use of natural ventilation in occupied areas has been around since people lived in caves. It is somewhat interesting to note that the method of ventilation for reduction of indoor air pollutants has not changed much since then.

The use of either natural ventilation ( such as opening up windows, doors or use of gravity vents) or mechanical ventilation such as fans, ducted vents with fans and mechanical HVAC equipment with the ability to introduce outside air have been primary methods of ventilation for years. This method was used for natural conditioning of the air temperature, reduction of stale air (removal of CO2) or reduction and/or removal of airborne pollutants.

There are a number of challenges with using outside air for ventilation. First, if you introduce outside air that is significantly above (hot) or below (cold) the inside ambient temperature you will increase or reduce the temperature and humidity levels in the occupied area and the energy requirements (and equipment costs) to maintain a comfortable temperature and humidity range become excessive. Second, outside air is not really fresh air. In today’s world no matter where you live the amount of contaminants and pollutants in the outside air preclude you from introducing any air from the outside unless it is properly filtered.

A MORE EFFECTIVE ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD

Since its inception in 1985, Pure Air Systems HEPA based air filtration units were designed to be used to both filter the air and offer the option of introducing small amounts of outside, filtered fresh air for ventilation and reduction of CO2 and other airborne pollutants. The PAS systems can be used in conjunction with any type of forced air ducted heating/cooling system in the partial by-pass configuration or as stand alone units.

Page 2. Ventilation In Low-Rise Buildings:

The Pure Air Systems filtration units are all fan powered and range in air filtration volume from 350 CFM to 2000 CFM. These units incorporate an ECM energy efficient motor, forward curved blower, prefilter, carbon and certified 99.99% at 0.3 micron HEPA filter. The system is attached to the return air side of the HVAC system and a portion of the return air is brought in through the HEPA system (see image below) and continuously filtered.

A small amount of outside air (usually 50 to 100 CFM) is introduced directly ahead of the PAS unit. This small amount of air is naturally mixed with the ambient air from the return. Since the amount of outside air is much smaller (by percentage) than the amount of ambient air, even with extremely hot or cold outside air, the resultant mixed air temperature that is achieved through the natural mixing process delivered back to the HVAC system has a temperature differential of no more than 5 to 8 degrees F. from ambient. This means the amount of energy required to heat or cool this air back to the required temperature is minimal.

CONCLUSION

With the new tighter, energy efficient building techniques used today the need for some type of ventilation in occupied areas is necessary. However, with the need to reduce energy costs and meet some of the new LEED building certifications it is more important then ever that alternate methods of introducing outside air for ventilation be considered. The ventilation method utilized by Pure Air Systems is not only more energy efficient but provides a much greater reduction of airborne pollutants and better indoor air quality.

Pure Air Systems
6115 Guion Road
Indianapolis, IN 46254
800-869-8025
www.pureairsystems.com

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